Association between seasonal affective disorder and subjective quality of the sleep/wake cycle in adolescents

Psychiatry Res. 2014 Mar 30;215(3):624-7. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2013.12.023. Epub 2013 Dec 19.


The relationship between seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and subjective quality of sleep/wake cycle in adolescents was explored. The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (SPAQ-CA) and Mini Sleep Questionnaire (MSQ) were administered to 345 adolescents living in the city of Cesena (Emilia-Romagna region, Italy) (299 females; age range: 14-18 years), to determine SAD and perceived quality of the sleep/wake cycle. The response rate was 92% for females and 90.2% for males. The MSQ includes two factors, sleep and wake, with lower scores corresponding to a lower quality of sleep and wake. The MSQ includes cut-off criteria to detect a good or bad sleep and wake quality. Adolescents with SAD (16 ± 5.7) scored significantly lower than those not affected on wake factor (19.5 ± 4.3), while no effect has been observed on sleep factor. SAD was the only one significant predictor of good/bad wake quality, while it did not reach significant level with reference to good/bad sleep quality. Present results are indications of a possible influence of SAD on wake quality and further studies are necessary to confirm them.

Keywords: Adolescents; Seasonal affective disorder; Sleep/wake quality.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Circadian Rhythm
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Italy / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Quality of Life
  • Seasonal Affective Disorder / diagnosis*
  • Seasonal Affective Disorder / epidemiology
  • Seasonal Affective Disorder / psychology*
  • Seasons
  • Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm / diagnosis*
  • Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm / epidemiology
  • Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm / psychology*
  • Sleep*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires