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. 2014 Feb 5;55:72-84.
doi: 10.1016/j.enzmictec.2013.12.008. Epub 2013 Dec 16.

The Use of Trametes Versicolor Laccase for the Polymerization of Aniline in the Presence of Vesicles as Templates

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The Use of Trametes Versicolor Laccase for the Polymerization of Aniline in the Presence of Vesicles as Templates

Katja Junker et al. Enzyme Microb Technol. .

Abstract

The enzymatic polymerization of aniline to polyaniline (PANI) with Trametes versicolor laccase (TvL) as catalyst and dioxygen (O₂) as oxidant was investigated in an aqueous medium containing unilamellar vesicles with an average diameter of about 80 nm formed from AOT (=sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate). Compared to the same reaction carried out with horseradish peroxidase isoenzyme C (HRPC) as catalyst and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) as oxidant, notable differences were found in the kinetics of the reaction, as well as in the characteristics of the PANI obtained. Under comparable optimal conditions, which are pH 3.5 for TvL/O₂ and pH 4.3 for HRPC/H₂O₂, the reaction with TvL/O₂ was much slower than with HRPC/H₂O₂, i.e. ≈27 days vs. 1 day reaction time to reach equilibrium with >90% yield at 25 °C. Although in both cases, aniline monomer coupling occurred mainly via the carbon atom in para position of aniline, UV-vis-NIR absorption and EPR measurements indicate that the reaction with TvL/O₂ yielded mainly overoxidized products (with λ(max)=730 nm). These products had a lower amount of unpaired electrons if compared with the products obtained with HRPC/H₂O₂ (with λ(max)≈1000 nm, which is characteristic for the polaron state of PANI-ES, the emeraldine salt form of PANI). Similarly to previous findings with HRPC/H₂O₂, enzyme inactivation occurred during the polymerization also in the case of TvL/O₂. Since the aqueous PANI-vesicle suspensions obtained are of high colloidal stability, they can be used directly as ink in a conventional thermal inkjet printer for printing on paper or on surface treated polyimide films. Printed PANI-ES patterns on paper changed colour from green (emeraldine salt) to blue (emeraldine base) upon exposure to ammonia gas, demonstrating the expected ammonia sensing properties.

Keywords: 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate); ABTS(2−); AOT; Enzyme; HRPC; Laccase; PADPA; PANI; PANI prepared with HRPC in the presence of AOT vesicles; PANI prepared with TvL in the presence of AOT vesicles; PANI-ES; PANI-HRPC-AOT; PANI-TvL-AOT; Polyaniline; Polymer; SBP; SPS; Template; Trametes versicolor laccase; TvL; Vesicle; emeraldine salt form of PANI; horseradish peroxidase isoenzyme C; p-aminodiphenylamine; polyaniline; sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate; soybean peroxidase; sulfonated polystyrene.

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