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. 2014 Feb 5;55:72-84.
doi: 10.1016/j.enzmictec.2013.12.008. Epub 2013 Dec 16.

The Use of Trametes Versicolor Laccase for the Polymerization of Aniline in the Presence of Vesicles as Templates


The Use of Trametes Versicolor Laccase for the Polymerization of Aniline in the Presence of Vesicles as Templates

Katja Junker et al. Enzyme Microb Technol. .


The enzymatic polymerization of aniline to polyaniline (PANI) with Trametes versicolor laccase (TvL) as catalyst and dioxygen (O₂) as oxidant was investigated in an aqueous medium containing unilamellar vesicles with an average diameter of about 80 nm formed from AOT (=sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate). Compared to the same reaction carried out with horseradish peroxidase isoenzyme C (HRPC) as catalyst and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) as oxidant, notable differences were found in the kinetics of the reaction, as well as in the characteristics of the PANI obtained. Under comparable optimal conditions, which are pH 3.5 for TvL/O₂ and pH 4.3 for HRPC/H₂O₂, the reaction with TvL/O₂ was much slower than with HRPC/H₂O₂, i.e. ≈27 days vs. 1 day reaction time to reach equilibrium with >90% yield at 25 °C. Although in both cases, aniline monomer coupling occurred mainly via the carbon atom in para position of aniline, UV-vis-NIR absorption and EPR measurements indicate that the reaction with TvL/O₂ yielded mainly overoxidized products (with λ(max)=730 nm). These products had a lower amount of unpaired electrons if compared with the products obtained with HRPC/H₂O₂ (with λ(max)≈1000 nm, which is characteristic for the polaron state of PANI-ES, the emeraldine salt form of PANI). Similarly to previous findings with HRPC/H₂O₂, enzyme inactivation occurred during the polymerization also in the case of TvL/O₂. Since the aqueous PANI-vesicle suspensions obtained are of high colloidal stability, they can be used directly as ink in a conventional thermal inkjet printer for printing on paper or on surface treated polyimide films. Printed PANI-ES patterns on paper changed colour from green (emeraldine salt) to blue (emeraldine base) upon exposure to ammonia gas, demonstrating the expected ammonia sensing properties.

Keywords: 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate); ABTS(2−); AOT; Enzyme; HRPC; Laccase; PADPA; PANI; PANI prepared with HRPC in the presence of AOT vesicles; PANI prepared with TvL in the presence of AOT vesicles; PANI-ES; PANI-HRPC-AOT; PANI-TvL-AOT; Polyaniline; Polymer; SBP; SPS; Template; Trametes versicolor laccase; TvL; Vesicle; emeraldine salt form of PANI; horseradish peroxidase isoenzyme C; p-aminodiphenylamine; polyaniline; sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate; soybean peroxidase; sulfonated polystyrene.

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