Percutaneous forefoot surgery

Orthop Traumatol Surg Res. 2014 Feb;100(1 Suppl):S191-204. doi: 10.1016/j.otsr.2013.06.017. Epub 2014 Jan 9.


Percutaneous methods can be used to perform many surgical procedures on the soft tissues and bones of the forefoot, thereby providing treatment options for all the disorders and deformities seen at this site. Theoretical advantages of percutaneous surgery include lower morbidity rates and faster recovery with immediate weight bearing. Disadvantages are the requirement for specific equipment, specific requirements for post-operative management, and lengthy learning curve. At present, percutaneous hallux valgus correction is mainly achieved with chevron osteotomy of the first metatarsal, for which internal fixation and a minimally invasive approach (2 cm incision) seem reliable and reproducible. This procedure is currently the focus of research and evaluation. Percutaneous surgery for hallux rigidus is simple and provides similar outcomes to those of open surgery. Lateral metatarsal malalignment and toe deformities are good indications for percutaneous treatment, which produces results similar to those of conventional surgery with lower morbidity rates. Finally, fifth ray abnormalities are currently the ideal indication for percutaneous surgery, given the simplicity of the procedure and post-operative course, high reliability, and very low rate of iatrogenic complications. The most commonly performed percutaneous techniques are described herein, with their current indications, main outcomes, and recent developments.

Keywords: Hallux rigidus; Hallux valgus; Metatarsal osteotomy; Metatarsalgia; Percutaneous surgery.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bandages
  • Endoscopy / education
  • Endoscopy / methods*
  • Exostoses / surgery
  • Fluoroscopy / instrumentation
  • Fluoroscopy / methods
  • Forefoot, Human / surgery*
  • Hallux Rigidus / surgery
  • Hallux Valgus / surgery
  • Humans
  • Learning Curve
  • Metatarsal Bones / surgery
  • Metatarsalgia / surgery
  • Metatarsophalangeal Joint / surgery
  • Osteotomy / instrumentation
  • Osteotomy / methods
  • Postoperative Care
  • Surgery, Computer-Assisted / instrumentation
  • Surgical Equipment
  • Surgical Instruments
  • Toe Phalanges / surgery
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Weight-Bearing / physiology