Enhanced cytotoxic effect of radiation and temozolomide in malignant glioma cells: targeting PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling, HSP90 and histone deacetylases

BMC Cancer. 2014 Jan 13;14:17. doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-14-17.

Abstract

Background: Despite aggressive treatment with radiation therapy and concurrent adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ), glioblastoma multiform (GBM) still has a dismal prognosis. We aimed to identify strategies to improve the therapeutic outcome of combined radiotherapy and TMZ in GBM by targeting pro-survival signaling from the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR).

Methods: Glioma cell lines U251, T98G were used. Colony formation, DNA damage repair, mode of cell death, invasion, migration and vasculogenic mimicry as well as protein expression were determined.

Results: U251 cells showing a low level of methyl guanine transferase (MGMT) were highly responsive to the radiosensitizing effect of TMZ compared to T98G cells having a high level of MGMT. Treatment with a dual inhibitor of Class I PI3K/mTOR, PI103; a HSP90 inhibitor, 17-DMAG; or a HDAC inhibitor, LBH589, further increased the cytotoxic effect of radiation therapy plus TMZ in U251 cells than in T98G cells. However, treatment with a mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, did not discernibly potentiate the radiosensitizing effect of TMZ in either cell line. The mechanism of enhanced radiosensitizing effects of TMZ was multifactorial, involving impaired DNA damage repair, induction of autophagy or apoptosis, and reversion of EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition).

Conclusions: Our results suggest possible strategies for counteracting the pro-survival signaling from EGFR to improve the therapeutic outcome of combined radiotherapy and TMZ for high-grade gliomas.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / pharmacology*
  • Apoptosis / drug effects
  • Apoptosis / radiation effects
  • Autophagy / drug effects
  • Autophagy / radiation effects
  • Brain Neoplasms / enzymology*
  • Brain Neoplasms / genetics
  • Brain Neoplasms / pathology
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Movement / drug effects
  • Cell Movement / radiation effects
  • Chemoradiotherapy*
  • DNA Damage
  • DNA Modification Methylases / metabolism
  • DNA Repair Enzymes / metabolism
  • Dacarbazine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Dacarbazine / pharmacology
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation
  • Epigenesis, Genetic / drug effects
  • Epigenesis, Genetic / radiation effects
  • Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition / drug effects
  • Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition / radiation effects
  • ErbB Receptors / genetics
  • ErbB Receptors / metabolism
  • Glioma / enzymology*
  • Glioma / genetics
  • Glioma / pathology
  • HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins / metabolism*
  • Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Histone Deacetylases / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Neoplasm Grading
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase / metabolism*
  • Phosphoinositide-3 Kinase Inhibitors
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism*
  • RNA Interference
  • Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / pharmacology*
  • Signal Transduction / drug effects*
  • Signal Transduction / radiation effects*
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism*
  • Temozolomide
  • Transfection
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

Substances

  • Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating
  • HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins
  • Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors
  • Phosphoinositide-3 Kinase Inhibitors
  • Protein Kinase Inhibitors
  • Radiation-Sensitizing Agents
  • Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • Dacarbazine
  • DNA Modification Methylases
  • MGMT protein, human
  • MTOR protein, human
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase
  • EGFR protein, human
  • ErbB Receptors
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • Histone Deacetylases
  • DNA Repair Enzymes
  • Temozolomide