Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is a serious complication of chronic GVHD (cGVHD) following HSCT (hematopoietic SCT). The clinical diagnosis of BOS is based on pulmonary function test (PFT) abnormalities including: FEV1<75% predicted and obstructive FEV1/VC ratio, calculated using reference equations. We sought to determine if the frequency of clinical diagnoses and severity of BOS would be altered by using the recommended NHANES III vs older equations (Morris/Goldman/Bates, MGB) in 166 cGVHD patients, median age 48 (range: 12-67). We found that NHANES III equations significantly increased the prevalence of BOS, with an additional 11% (18/166) meeting diagnostic criteria by revealing low FEV1 (<75%) (P<0.0001), and six additional patients by obstructive ratio (vs MBG). Collectively, this led to an increase of BOS incidence from 17 (29/166) to 29% (41/166). For patients with severe BOS, (FEV1<35%), NHANES III equations correctly predicted death 71.4% vs 50% using MGB. In conclusion, the use of NHANES III equations markedly increases the proportion of cases meeting diagnostic criteria for BOS and improves prediction of survival.