Hypoparathyroidism (HP) is clinically characterized by the presence of hypocalcemia, usually associated with specific signs and symptoms that depend on how severe and chronic the disease becomes. HP is usually caused by surgical removal of all four parathyroids, while other forms are rarer. Autoimmune HP can occur as an isolated disease or as part of an autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome. Here we review what is known about parathyroid gland autoimmunity, focusing on recently-proposed parathyroid autoantibody markers, and particularly those directed against NACHT leucine-rich-repeat protein 5 and calcium-sensing receptor. We also describe the clinical characteristics of HP and design a diagnostic algorithm for autoimmune HP.
Keywords: Autoimmune hypoparathyroidism; Autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes; Calcium-sensing receptor autoantibodies; Chronic hypoparathyroidism; NACHT leucine-rich-repeat protein 5 autoantibodies.
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