Diagnosis and classification of autoimmune parathyroid disease

Autoimmun Rev. Apr-May 2014;13(4-5):417-22. doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2014.01.044. Epub 2014 Jan 11.


Hypoparathyroidism (HP) is clinically characterized by the presence of hypocalcemia, usually associated with specific signs and symptoms that depend on how severe and chronic the disease becomes. HP is usually caused by surgical removal of all four parathyroids, while other forms are rarer. Autoimmune HP can occur as an isolated disease or as part of an autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome. Here we review what is known about parathyroid gland autoimmunity, focusing on recently-proposed parathyroid autoantibody markers, and particularly those directed against NACHT leucine-rich-repeat protein 5 and calcium-sensing receptor. We also describe the clinical characteristics of HP and design a diagnostic algorithm for autoimmune HP.

Keywords: Autoimmune hypoparathyroidism; Autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes; Calcium-sensing receptor autoantibodies; Chronic hypoparathyroidism; NACHT leucine-rich-repeat protein 5 autoantibodies.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Autoantibodies / immunology
  • Autoantigens / immunology
  • Biomarkers
  • Humans
  • Hypoparathyroidism / diagnosis*
  • Hypoparathyroidism / epidemiology
  • Hypoparathyroidism / etiology
  • Hypoparathyroidism / immunology
  • Mitochondrial Proteins
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Parathyroid Glands / immunology
  • Receptors, Calcium-Sensing / immunology


  • Autoantibodies
  • Autoantigens
  • Biomarkers
  • Mitochondrial Proteins
  • NLRP5 protein, human
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Receptors, Calcium-Sensing