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, 64 (Pt 4), 1296-303

Description of Anaerobacterium Chartisolvens Gen. Nov., Sp. Nov., an Obligately Anaerobic Bacterium From Clostridium rRNA Cluster III Isolated From Soil of a Japanese Rice Field, and Reclassification of Bacteroides Cellulosolvens Murray Et Al. 1984 as Pseudobacteroides Cellulosolvens Gen. Nov., Comb. Nov

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Description of Anaerobacterium Chartisolvens Gen. Nov., Sp. Nov., an Obligately Anaerobic Bacterium From Clostridium rRNA Cluster III Isolated From Soil of a Japanese Rice Field, and Reclassification of Bacteroides Cellulosolvens Murray Et Al. 1984 as Pseudobacteroides Cellulosolvens Gen. Nov., Comb. Nov

Haruka Horino et al. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol.

Abstract

An obligately anaerobic bacterial strain designated T-1-35(T) was isolated as a dominant cultivable cellulose-degrading bacterium from soil of a Japanese rice field as an anaerobic filter-paper degrader. Cells of strain T-1-35(T) stained Gram-positive and were non-spore-forming rods with rounded ends, 0.8-1.0×3.5-15.0 µm, and motile by means of two to four polar flagella. Cells of strain T-1-35(T) exhibited pleomorphism: in aged cultures (over 90 days of incubation), almost all cells were irregularly shaped. Although no spore formation was observed, cells tolerated high temperatures, up to 90 °C for 10 min. The temperature range for growth was 15-40 °C, with an optimum at 35 °C. The pH range for growth was 5.5-9.0, with an optimum at pH 8.0-8.5 (slightly alkaliphilic). Strain T-1-35(T) fermented some carbohydrates to produce ethanol and lactate as the major products. Major cellular fatty acids were iso-C16 : 0 and iso-C13 : 0 3-OH. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain T-1-35(T) belonged to Clostridium rRNA cluster III. The closest relative of strain T-1-35(T) was Bacteroides cellulosolvens WM2(T), with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 93.4 %. Phenotypic, physiological and molecular genetic methods demonstrated that strain T-1-35(T) was distinct from its phylogenetic relatives (members of Clostridium rRNA cluster III) because it predominantly produced ethanol, iso-C13 : 0 3-OH was a major cellular fatty acid and it always exhibited pleomorphism. On the basis of the results of a polyphasic taxonomic study, strain T-1-35(T) is considered to represent a novel genus and species, Anaerobacterium chartisolvens gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain of Anaerobacterium chartisolvens is T-1-35(T) ( = DSM 27016(T) = NBRC 109520(T)). In addition, from the results of our phylogenetic analysis and its phenotypic features, the species Bacteroides cellulosolvens Murray et al. 1984 is proposed to be reclassified in the new genus Pseudobacteroides as Pseudobacteroides cellulosolvens gen. nov., comb. nov., with the type strain WM2(T) ( = ATCC 35603(T) = DSM 2933(T) = NRCC 2944(T)).

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