Glucose effectiveness in nondiabetic relatives: dysglycemia and β-cell function at 10 years

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Apr;99(4):1420-4. doi: 10.1210/jc.2013-3273. Epub 2014 Jan 16.


Aims: Reduced glucose effectiveness is a predictor of future glucose tolerance in individuals with a family history of type 2 diabetes. We examined retrospectively at 10 years in normoglycemic relatives of diabetic subjects (RELs) the pathophysiological role of glucose effectiveness in the development of isolated impaired fasting glucose, glucose intolerance, and acute insulin release.

Methods: At 0 years, 19 RELs and 18 matched control subjects had glucose effectiveness (GE), insulin sensitivity, acute insulin release (AIR)IVGTT, and disposition index measured during an iv glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), using the minimal model analysis. At 0 and 10 years, oral glucose tolerance (OGTT) and AIROGTT were determined.

Results: At 0 years, fasting glucose (FG) and GE were raised in RELs, but insulin sensitivity and AIROGTT were reduced (P ≤ .05) compared with controls. At 10 years, RELs developed raised fasting and 2-hour OGTT glucose. FG10y correlated significantly with FG0y and body mass index0y and negatively with √GE and 2-hour OGTT glucose10y with FG0y and negatively with AIRIVGTT0y and AIROGTT0y. Log AIROGTT10y correlated with √GE, log AIRIVGTT0y and log AIROGTT0y. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated the following: REL FG10y was predicted by combined FG0y, √GE and body mass index0y (radj(2) = 56%; P ≤ .001) and 2-hour OGTT glucose10y weakly related by FG0y,and √GE (r(adj)(2) = 25%; P = .06). Log AIROGTT10y was predicted by AIRIVGTT0y and √GE (r(adj)(2) = 46%; P ≤ .004).

Conclusion: In normoglycemic RELs, a relative reduction of glucose effectiveness is an important contributor over 10 years to the development of isolated impaired fasting glucose and reduced acute insulin secretion.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2*
  • Family
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Glucose Intolerance / epidemiology*
  • Glucose Intolerance / metabolism
  • Glucose Tolerance Test
  • Humans
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Insulin-Secreting Cells / physiology*
  • Male
  • Prediabetic State / epidemiology
  • Prediabetic State / metabolism
  • Retrospective Studies


  • Blood Glucose