Assessment of standing balance deficits in people who have undergone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using traditional and modern analysis methods

J Biomech. 2014 Mar 21;47(5):1134-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2013.12.015. Epub 2013 Dec 24.


Modern methods of assessing standing balance such as wavelet and entropy analysis could provide insight into postural control mechanisms in clinical populations. The aim of this study was to examine what effect anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) has on traditional and modern measures of balance. Ninety subjects, 45 who had undergone ACLR and 45 matched controls, performed single leg static standing balance tests on their surgical or matched limb on a Nintendo Wii Balance Board. Data were analysed in the anterior-posterior axis of movement, which is known to be affected by ACLR. The traditional measures of path velocity, amplitude and standard deviation were calculated in this plane. Additionally, sample entropy and discrete wavelet transform derived assessment of path velocity in four distinct frequency bands related to (1) spinal reflexive loops and muscle activity, (2) cerebellar, (3) vestibular, and (4) visual mechanisms of postural control were derived. The ACLR group had significantly increased values in all traditional measures and all four frequency bands. No significant difference was observed for sample entropy. This indicated that whilst postural sway was amplified in the ACLR group, the overall mechanism used by the patient group to maintain balance was similar to that of the control group. In conclusion, modern methods of signal analysis may provide additional insight into standing balance mechanisms in clinical populations. Future research is required to determine if these results provide important and unique information which is of benefit to clinicians.

Keywords: Knee surgery; Osteoarthritis; Postural control; Proprioception.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction*
  • Female
  • Gait
  • Humans
  • Leg
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Movement
  • Movement Disorders / diagnosis
  • Postoperative Complications / diagnosis
  • Postural Balance*
  • Young Adult