No vaccines are available for human use for any parasitic infections, including the helminthic disease schistosomiasis. Sm-p80, the large subunit of Schistosoma mansoni calpain, is a leading antigen candidate for a schistosomiasis vaccine. Prophylactic and antifecundity efficacies of Sm-p80 have been tested using a variety of vaccine approaches in both rodent and nonhuman primate models. However, the therapeutic efficacy of a Sm-p80-based vaccine had not been determined. In this study, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of Sm-p80 by using 2 different strategies and 3 Sm-p80-based vaccine formulations in baboons. Vaccine formulations were able to decrease established adult worms by 10%-36%, reduce retention of eggs in tissues by 10%-57%, and decrease egg excretion in feces by 13%-33%, compared with control formulations. Marked differences were observed in B and T cell immune correlates between vaccinated and control animals. This is the first report of killing of established adult schistosome worms by a vaccine. In addition to distinct prophylactic efficacy of Sm-p80, this study adds to the evidence that Sm-p80 is a potentially important antigen with both substantial prophylactic and therapeutic efficacies. These data reinforce that Sm-p80 should be moved forward along the path toward human clinical trials.
Keywords: Schistosoma mansoni; Schistosomiasis; Sm-p80; baboon; calpain; nonhuman primate; therapeutic vaccine.
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