Weight loss strategies for treatment of obesity

Prog Cardiovasc Dis. Jan-Feb 2014;56(4):465-72. doi: 10.1016/j.pcad.2013.09.005. Epub 2013 Oct 11.


Obesity is one of the most serious and prevalent non-communicable diseases of the 21st century. It is also a patient-centered condition in which affected individuals seek treatment through a variety of commercial, medical and surgical approaches. Considering obesity as a chronic medical disease state helps to frame the concept of using a three-stepped intensification of care approach to weight management. As a foundation, all patients should be counseled on evidence-based lifestyle approaches that include diet, physical activity and behavior change therapies. At the second tier, two new pharmacological agents, phentermine-topiramate and lorcaserin, were approved in 2012 as adjuncts to lifestyle modification. The third step, bariatric surgery, has been demonstrated to be the most effective and long-term treatment for individuals with severe obesity or moderate obesity complicated by comorbid conditions that is not responsive to non-surgical approaches. By using a medical model, clinicians can provide more proactive and effective treatments in assisting their patients with weight loss.

Keywords: AMA; American Medical Association; BMI; Bariatric surgery; CV; Diet; FDA; Food and Drug Administration; LAGB; LSG; Lifestyle; Obesity; PA; PHEN/TPM; Pharmacology; RYGB; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass; T2D; body mass index; cardiovascular; laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding; laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy; phentermine and topiramate; physical activity; type 2 diabetes.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Obesity Agents / therapeutic use
  • Bariatric Surgery / methods
  • Behavior Therapy / methods
  • Body Mass Index*
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Diet
  • Exercise / physiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Life Style*
  • Male
  • Obesity / diagnosis
  • Obesity / therapy*
  • Obesity, Morbid / diagnosis
  • Obesity, Morbid / therapy
  • Prognosis
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Weight Loss*


  • Anti-Obesity Agents