Diagnosis and classification of celiac disease and gluten sensitivity

Autoimmun Rev. Apr-May 2014;13(4-5):472-6. doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2014.01.043. Epub 2014 Jan 15.

Abstract

Celiac disease is a complex disorder, the development of which is controlled by a combination of genetic (HLA alleles) and environmental (gluten ingestion) factors. New diagnostic guidelines developed by ESPGHAN emphasize the crucial role of serological tests in the diagnostic process of symptomatic subjects, and of the detection of HLA DQ2/DQ8 alleles in defining a diagnosis in asymptomatic subjects belonging to at-risk groups. The serological diagnosis of CD is based on the detection of class IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG) and anti-endomysial antibodies. In patients with IgA deficiency, anti-tTG or anti-deamidated gliadin peptide antibody assays of the IgG class are used. When anti-tTG antibody levels are very high, antibody specificity is absolute and CD can be diagnosed without performing a duodenum biopsy. Non-celiac gluten sensitivity is a gluten reaction in which both allergic and autoimmune mechanisms have been ruled out. Diagnostic criteria include the presence of symptoms similar to those of celiac or allergic patients; negative allergological tests and absence of anti-tTG and EMA antibodies; normal duodenal histology; evidence of disappearance of the symptoms with a gluten-free diet; relapse of the symptoms when gluten is reintroduced.

Keywords: Anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies; Celiac disease; Diagnostic criteria; Gluten sensitivity; HLA DQ2/DQ8.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biopsy
  • Celiac Disease / diagnosis*
  • Celiac Disease / immunology*
  • Celiac Disease / pathology
  • Diet, Gluten-Free
  • Glutens / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulins / immunology

Substances

  • Immunoglobulins
  • Glutens