Previous studies have shown a role for nitric oxide and S-nitrosylation (SNO) in postconditioning (PostC), but specific SNO proteins and sites have not been identified in the myocardium after PostC. In this study, we examined SNO signaling in PostC using a Langendorff-perfused mouse heart model. After 20 min of equilibrium perfusion and 25 min of global ischemia, PostC was applied at the beginning of reperfusion with six cycles of 10 s of reperfusion and 10 s of ischemia. The total period of reperfusion was 90 min. Compared with the ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) control, PostC significantly reduced postischemic contractile dysfunction and infarct size. PostC-induced protection was blocked by treatment with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) (10 μmol/l; a constitutive NO synthase inhibitor), but not by either ODQ (10 μmol/l, a highly selective soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor) or KT5823 (1 μmol/l, a specific protein kinase G inhibitor). Two biotin switch based methods, two dimensional CyDye-maleimide difference gel electrophoresis (2D CyDye-maleimide DIGE) and SNO-resin-assisted capture (SNO-RAC), were utilized to identify SNO-modified proteins and sites. Using 2D CyDye-maleimide DIGE analysis, PostC was found to cause a 25% or greater increase in SNO of a number of proteins, which was blocked by treatment with l-NAME in parallel with the loss of protection. Using SNO-RAC, we identified 77 unique proteins with SNO sites after PostC. These results suggest that NO-mediated SNO signaling is involved in PostC-induced cardioprotection and these data provide the first set of candidate SNO proteins in PostC hearts.
Keywords: ischemic postconditioning; nitric oxide; protein S-nitrosylation; soluble guanylyl cyclase/cGMP.