The ID proteins: master regulators of cancer stem cells and tumour aggressiveness

Nat Rev Cancer. 2014 Feb;14(2):77-91. doi: 10.1038/nrc3638. Epub 2014 Jan 20.


Inhibitor of DNA binding (ID) proteins are transcriptional regulators that control the timing of cell fate determination and differentiation in stem and progenitor cells during normal development and adult life. ID genes are frequently deregulated in many types of human neoplasms, and they endow cancer cells with biological features that are hijacked from normal stem cells. The ability of ID proteins to function as central 'hubs' for the coordination of multiple cancer hallmarks has established these transcriptional regulators as therapeutic targets and biomarkers in specific types of human tumours.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic*
  • Humans
  • Inhibitor of Differentiation Proteins / genetics
  • Inhibitor of Differentiation Proteins / metabolism*
  • Neoplasms / genetics
  • Neoplasms / metabolism*
  • Neoplastic Stem Cells / metabolism*


  • Inhibitor of Differentiation Proteins