The role of mTORC1 in regulating protein synthesis and skeletal muscle mass in response to various mechanical stimuli

Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol. 2014;166:43-95. doi: 10.1007/112_2013_17.

Abstract

Skeletal muscle plays a fundamental role in mobility, disease prevention, and quality of life. Skeletal muscle mass is, in part, determined by the rates of protein synthesis, and mechanical loading is a major regulator of protein synthesis and skeletal muscle mass. The mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), found in the multi-protein complex, mTORC1, is proposed to play an essential role in the regulation of protein synthesis and skeletal muscle mass. The purpose of this review is to examine the function of mTORC1 in relation to protein synthesis and cell growth, the current evidence from rodent and human studies for the activation of mTORC1 signaling by different types of mechanical stimuli, whether mTORC1 signaling is necessary for changes in protein synthesis and skeletal muscle mass that occur in response to different types of mechanical stimuli, and the proposed molecular signaling mechanisms that may be responsible for the mechanical activation of mTORC1 signaling.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Exercise
  • Humans
  • Hypertrophy
  • Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1
  • Mechanotransduction, Cellular*
  • Multiprotein Complexes / metabolism*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / metabolism*
  • Muscle, Skeletal / pathology
  • Protein Biosynthesis*
  • Stress, Mechanical
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism*

Substances

  • Multiprotein Complexes
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1