High prevalence of Y-box protein-1/p18 fragment in plasma of patients with malignancies of different origin

BMC Cancer. 2014 Jan 20:14:33. doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-14-33.


Background: Expression of the cold shock protein Y-box protein 1 (YB-1) is associated with deleterious outcome in various malignant diseases. Our group recently showed that the detection of an 18 kDa YB-1 fragment (YB-1/p18) in human plasma identifies patients with malignant diseases. We now tested the prevalence, clinical, and diagnostic value of YB-1/p18 detection in common tumors.

Methods: A newly established monoclonal YB-1 antibody was used to detect YB-1/p18 by immunoblotting in plasma samples from 151 unselected tumor patients, alongside established tumor markers and various diagnostic measures, during evaluation for a cancerous disease and in follow-up studies after therapeutic interventions.

Results: Circulating YB-1/p18 was detected in 78% of patients having a tumor disease. YB-1/p18 positivity was highly prevalent in all examined malignancies, including lung cancer (32/37; 87%), breast cancer (7/10; 70%), cancer of unknown primary (CUP; 5/5, 100%) or hematological malignancies (42/62; 68%). Positivity for YB-1/p18 was independent of other routine laboratory parameters, tumor stage, or histology. In comparison to 13 established tumor markers (cancer antigens 15-3, 19-9, 72-4, and 125; carcinoembryonic antigen; cytokeratin fragments 21-1; neuron-specific enolase; alpha-fetoprotein; beta-2-microglobulin; squamous cell carcinoma antigen; thymidine kinase; tissue polypeptide antigen; pro-gastrin-releasing peptide), YB-1/p18 detection within serum samples was the most sensitive general parameter identifying malignant disorders. YB-1/p18 concentrations altered during therapeutic interventions, but did not predict prognosis.

Conclusions: Plasma YB-1/p18 detection has a high specific prevalence in malignancies, thereby providing a novel tool for cancer screening independent of the tumor origin.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / blood*
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / immunology
  • Blotting, Western
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasms / blood*
  • Neoplasms / immunology
  • Neoplasms / pathology
  • Neoplasms / therapy
  • Peptide Fragments / blood*
  • Peptide Fragments / immunology
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prognosis
  • Time Factors
  • Y-Box-Binding Protein 1 / blood*
  • Y-Box-Binding Protein 1 / immunology
  • Young Adult


  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Peptide Fragments
  • Y-Box-Binding Protein 1
  • YBX1 protein, human