Unruptured tubal pregnancies diagnosed at laparoscopy were treated with either methotrexate/citrovorum factor (MTX/CF) (n = 21) or observation (n = 5). Entry criteria required that the ectopic pregnancy be visualized, less than or equal to 3 cm in diameter, with intact serosa and no active bleeding. Treatment selection was based upon preoperative levels of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG), with MTX/CF given to subjects exhibiting a plateaued or rising pattern and observation alone given to those with falling levels. Twenty-five of 26 ectopic pregnancies resolved without need of laparotomy. Two subjects received blood transfusions and one required a second operation for intra-abdominal bleeding. In both cases, fetal cardiac activity was noted pretreatment on ultrasound. The authors conclude the following: (1) MTX/CF may be safely used to treat selected unruptured ectopic pregnancy; (2) many ectopic pregnancies resolve spontaneously; and (3) ectopic pregnancies that form fetal elements, as evidenced on ultrasound, should not be managed medically.