Introduction: There is limited data on mortality and associated morbidity in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB). Our aim was to analyze the overall mortality for all newly diagnosed patients from June 2006 onwards and to evaluate risk factors for mortality in this cohort.
Methods: 245 patients who had a new diagnosis of NCFB between June 2006 and October 2012 at the University Hospital of Leuven, Belgium, were included in the analysis. Death was analyzed until end of November 2013. All patients had chest HRCT scan confirming the presence of bronchiectatic lesions and had symptoms of chronic productive cough. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard survival regression analysis was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) of variables possibly predicting mortality.
Results: Overall mortality in NCFB patients who had a median follow-up of 5.18 years was 20.4%. Patients with NCFB and associated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) had a mortality of 55% in that period. Univariate analysis showed higher mortality according to age, gender, smoking history, Pseudomonas aeruginosa status, spirometry, radiological extent, total number of sputum bacteria and underlying etiology. Multivariate analysis showed significant higher mortality with increasing age (HR = 1.045; p = 0.004), with increasing number of lobes affected (HR = 1.53; p = 0.009) and when patients had COPD associated NCFB (HR = 2.12; p = 0.038). The majority of the 50 deaths were respiratory related (n = 29; 58%).
Conclusion: NCFB patients with associated COPD disease had the highest mortality rates compared to the other NCFB patients. Additional risk factors for lower survival were increasing age and number of lobes affected.
Keywords: Bronchiectasis; COPD; Chronic colonization; Mortality; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; Survival.
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