Objective: To develop psychometrically sound, culturally relevant, and linguistically equivalent English and Spanish self-report measures of social health guided by a comprehensive conceptual model and applicable across chronic illnesses.
Methods: The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Social Health Workgroup implemented a mixed methods approach to evaluate earlier results (v1.0); expand and refine domain definitions and items; translate items into Spanish; and obtain qualitative feedback. Computer-based and paper/pencil questionnaire administration was conducted with a variety of U.S. respondent samples during 2009-2012. Analyses included exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), two-parameter logistic item response theory (IRT) modeling, evaluation of differential item functioning (DIF), and evaluation of criterion and construct validity.
Results: Qualitative feedback supported the conceptualization of the Social Health domain framework (Social Function and Social Relationships subcomponents). Validation testing participants (n = 2,208 English; n = 644 Spanish) were diverse in terms of gender, age, education, and ethnicity/race. EFA, CFA, and IRT identified 7 unidimensional factors with good model fit. There was no DIF by language, and good evidence of criterion and construct validity.
Conclusions: PROMIS English and Spanish language instruments (v2.0), including computer-adaptive tests and fixed-length short forms, are publicly available for assessment of Social Function (Ability to Participate in Social Roles and Activities, and Satisfaction with Social Roles and Activities) and Social Relationships (Companionship; Emotional, Informational and Instrumental Support; and Social Isolation). Measures of social health will play a key role in applications that use ecologic (or determinants of health) models that emphasize how patients' social environments influence their health.
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