Occurrence and spatial distribution of microplastics in sediments from Norderney

Environ Pollut. 2014 Mar:186:248-56. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2013.11.019. Epub 2014 Jan 19.


The spatial distribution of small potential microplastics (SPM) (<1 mm) in beach sediments was studied on a 500 m stretch of the North Sea island of Norderney. Their correlation with visible plastic debris (VPD) (>1 mm) was also examined. Small microparticles were extracted from 36 one kg sediment samples and analysed by visual microscopic inspection and partly by thermal desorption pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The smallest particle size that could be analysed with this method was estimated to be 100 μm. The mean number of SPM at the three sampling sites (n = 12) was 1.7, 1.3 and 2.3 particles per kg dry sediment, respectively. SPM were identified as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, polyvinylchloride, polystyrene and polyamide. The organic plastic additives found were benzophenone, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, dimethyl phthalate, diethylhexyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, phenol and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. Particles were distributed rather homogenously and the occurrence of SPM did not correlate with that of VPD.

Keywords: Density separation; Gas chromatography; Marine plastic debris; Mass spectrometry; Microplastics; North sea; Organic polymer additives; Pyrolysis.

MeSH terms

  • Environmental Monitoring*
  • Geologic Sediments / chemistry*
  • North Sea
  • Particle Size
  • Plastics / analysis*
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / analysis*
  • Water Pollution, Chemical / statistics & numerical data


  • Plastics
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical