Dimethocaine (DMC, larocaine), a synthetic derivative of cocaine, is a widely distributed "legal high" consumed as a "new psychoactive substance" (NPS) without any safety testing, for example studies of metabolism. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to study its in-vivo and in-vitro metabolism by use of liquid chromatography-(high resolution) mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS(n)). DMC was administered to male Wistar rats (20 mg kg(-1)) and their urine was extracted either by solid-phase extraction after enzymatic cleavage of conjugates or by use of protein precipitation (PP). The metabolites were separated and identified by LC-HRMS(n). The main phase I reactions were ester hydrolysis, deethylation, hydroxylation of the aromatic system, and a combination of these. The main phase II reaction was N-acetylation of the p-aminobenzoic acid part of the unchanged parent compound and of several phase I metabolites. The metabolites identified were then used for identification of DMC in rat urine after application of a common user's dose. By use of GC-MS and LC-MS(n) standard urine-screening approaches (SUSAs), DMC and its metabolites could be detected in the urine samples.