Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) type IIA is caused by mutations in the mitofusin type-2 (MFN2) gene and represents one of the most common axonal forms of HMSN. We determined the spectrum and frequency of MFN2 gene mutations in patients from the Bashkortostan Republic (BR). Four different mutations were revealed in 5 out of 170 unrelated patients, i.e., c.2113G>A (p.Val705Ile) (1.2% among all types of H MSN in the total sample of patients and 2% among patients of Tatar ethnicity). This mutation was described previously; c.775C>T (p.Arg259Cys) (0.6%, in the total sample of patients and 2% among the patients of Tatar ethnicity); c.776G>A (p.Arg259His) (0.6% in the total sample of patients and 1.5% among the patients of Russians ethnicity); and c.2171T>C (p.Leu724Pro) (1.2% in the total sample of patients and 7.4% among the patients of Bashkirs ethnicity). These are new mutations that were not observed among healthy family members and in control samples of healthy subjects. Five identified nucleotide substitutions represent single nucleotide polymorphisms of the gene, including c.892G>A (p.Gly298Arg), c.957C>T (Gly319Gly), and c1039-222t>c, which were described previously, while c.175+28c>t and c.2204+15t>c represent new nucleotide substitutions in the intron regions of the gene.