Chronic hepatitis B virus (CHB) is currently treated with either interferon-based or nucleot(s)ide-based antiviral therapies. However, treatment with pegylated interferon alpha results in a durable antiviral response in only about 30% patients and is associated with side effects. Most patients receiving nucleot(s)ide analogue treatment do not establish long-term, durable control of infection and have rebounding viremia after cessation of therapy. Thus, novel therapy strategies are necessary to achieve the induction of potent and durable antiviral immune responses of the patients which can maintain long-term control of viral replication. Therapeutic vaccination of HBV carriers is a promising strategy for the control of hepatitis B. Here the authors review new therapeutic vaccination strategies to treat chronic hepatitis B which may be introduced for patient treatment in the future.