Melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.) Seed Extract Decreases Serum Uric Acid Levels in Nonobese Japanese Males: A Randomized Controlled Study

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:589169. doi: 10.1155/2013/589169. Epub 2013 Dec 17.


Melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.) seed extract (MSE) containing trans-resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) and other derivatives exerts various beneficial effects. However, its mechanism of action in humans remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to investigate beneficial effects of MSE in healthy adult males. In this double-blind, randomized controlled study, 30 males aged 35-70 years with ≤10% flow-mediated dilatation received placebo or 750 mg MSE powder for 8 weeks, and twenty-nine males (45.1 ± 8.8 years old) completed the trial. There was a significant difference in the melinjo and placebo groups. Compared with the placebo control, MSE significantly reduced serum uric acid at 4 weeks and 8 weeks (n = 14 and 15, resp.). HDL cholesterol was significantly increased in the melinjo group. To clarify the mechanism of MSE for reducing uric acid, we investigated xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity, angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor binding inhibition rate, and agonistic activities for PPAR α and PPAR γ . MSE, trans-resveratrol, and a resveratrol dimer, gnetin C (GC), significantly inhibit AT1 receptor binding and exhibit mild agonistic activities for PPAR α and PPAR γ . In conclusion, MSE may decrease serum uric acid regardless of insulin resistance and may improve lipid metabolism by increasing HDL cholesterol.