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, 2013, 836738

Indian Craniometric Variability and Affinities

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Indian Craniometric Variability and Affinities

Pathmanathan Raghavan et al. Int J Evol Biol.

Abstract

Recently published craniometric and genetic studies indicate a predominantly indigenous ancestry of Indian populations. We address this issue with a fuller coverage of Indian craniometrics than any done before. We analyse metrical variability within Indian series, Indians' sexual dimorphism, differences between northern and southern Indians, index-based differences of Indian males from other series, and Indians' multivariate affinities. The relationship between a variable's magnitude and its variability is log-linear. This relationship is strengthened by excluding cranial fractions and series with a sample size less than 30. Male crania are typically larger than female crania, but there are also shape differences. Northern Indians differ from southern Indians in various features including narrower orbits and less pronounced medial protrusion of the orbits. Indians resemble Veddas in having small crania and similar cranial shape. Indians' wider geographic affinities lie with "Caucasoid" populations to the northwest, particularly affecting northern Indians. The latter finding is confirmed from shape-based Mahalanobis-D distances calculated for the best sampled male and female series. Demonstration of a distinctive South Asian craniometric profile and the intermediate status of northern Indians between southern Indians and populations northwest of India confirm the predominantly indigenous ancestry of northern and especially southern Indians.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Distribution of Indian languages covered in this study and locations of holding institutions.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Sexual dimorphism of the ten Indian series for the Howells measurements, arranged in approximate ascending order.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Male South Asians compared to Howells series on some main cranial measurements.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Male South Asians compared to Howells series on indices of the cranial vault.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Male South Asians compared to Howells series on indices involving facial chords.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Male South Asians compared to Howells series on indices of facial flatness.
Figure 7
Figure 7
Averages and ranges on PC1 for the Howells and Indian series ordered according to approximate cranial size.
Figure 8
Figure 8
Male centroids and ranges for PC2 and PC3 for the Howells and Indian cranial series.
Figure 9
Figure 9
Female centroids and ranges for PC2 and PC3 for the Howells and Indian cranial series.
Figure 10
Figure 10
Seriated average-linkage hierarchical dendrogram, Mahalanobis-D distances for 34 male series, Mosimann indices. (Coefficient of variation with a perfect seriation 72.3%.)
Figure 11
Figure 11
Seriated average-linkage hierarchical dendrogram, Mahalanobis-D distances for 32 female series, Mosimann indices. (Coefficient of variation with a perfect seriation 74.6%.)

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