Galactose content of legumes, caseinates, and some hard cheeses: implications for diet treatment of classic galactosemia

J Agric Food Chem. 2014 Feb 12;62(6):1397-402. doi: 10.1021/jf404995a. Epub 2014 Feb 3.


There are inconsistent reports on the lactose and/or galactose content of some foods traditionally restricted from the diet for classic galactosemia. Therefore, samples of cheeses, caseinates, and canned black, pinto, kidney, and garbanzo beans were analyzed for free galactose content using HPLC with refractive index or pulsed amperometric detection. Galactose concentrations in several hard and aged cheeses and three mild/medium Cheddars, produced by smaller local dairies, was <10 mg/100 g sample compared to 55.4 mg/100 g sample in four sharp Cheddars produced by a multinational producer. Galactose in sodium and calcium caseinate ranged from undetectable to 95.5 mg/100 g sample. Free galactose level in garbanzo beans was lower than previously reported at 24.6 mg/100 g sample; black beans contained 5.3 mg/100 g, and free galactose was not detected in red kidney or pinto beans. These data provide a basis for recommending inclusion of legumes, caseinate-containing foods, and some aged hard cheeses that had been previously restricted in the diet for individuals with galactosemia.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Caseins / chemistry*
  • Cheese / analysis*
  • Diet
  • Fabaceae / chemistry*
  • Galactose / analysis*
  • Galactosemias / diet therapy*
  • Humans
  • UTP-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase / deficiency


  • Caseins
  • UTP-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase
  • Galactose