Mortality rate in type 2 myocardial infarction: observations from an unselected hospital cohort

Am J Med. 2014 Apr;127(4):295-302. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2013.12.020. Epub 2014 Jan 21.


Background: The classification of myocardial infarction into 5 types was introduced in 2007. The prognostic impact of this universal definition, with particular focus on type 2 myocardial infarction, has not been studied prospectively in unselected hospital patients.

Methods: During a 1-year period, all hospitalized patients having cardiac troponin I measured were considered. The diagnosis of a myocardial infarction was according to the universal definition, and specified criteria were used in the classification of type 2 myocardial infarction. Follow-up was at least 1 year, with mortality as the end point.

Results: A total of 3762 consecutive patients were studied, of whom 488 (13%) had a myocardial infarction. In 119 patients a type 2 myocardial infarction was diagnosed. After a median of 2.1 years (interquartile range, 1.6-2.5 years), 150 patients had died, with a mortality rate of 49% (58/119) in those with type 2 myocardial infarction and 26% (92/360) in those with type 1 myocardial infarction (P < .0001). In a multivariable Cox regression analysis the following variables were independently associated with mortality: current or prior smoker, high age, prior myocardial infarction, type 2 myocardial infarction, hypercholesterolemia, high p-creatinine, and diabetes mellitus. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for type 2 myocardial infarction was 2.0 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.0). With shock as the only exception, mortality was independent of the triggering conditions leading to type 2 myocardial infarction.

Conclusions: Mortality in patients with type 2 myocardial infarction is high, reaching approximately 50% after 2 years. Further descriptive and survival studies are needed to improve the scientific evidence on which treatment of type 2 myocardial infarction is based.

Keywords: Acute myocardial infarction; Mortality; Prognosis; Type 2 myocardial infarction; Universal definition.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Cohort Studies
  • Female
  • Hospital Mortality
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Myocardial Infarction / classification
  • Myocardial Infarction / mortality*
  • Prospective Studies