Astrogliosis as a therapeutic target for neurodegenerative diseases

Neurosci Lett. 2014 Apr 17;565:59-64. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2014.01.014. Epub 2014 Jan 20.

Abstract

Chronic neurodegenerative diseases represent major unmet needs for therapeutic interventions. Recently, the neurocentric view of brain function and disease has been challenged by a great number of evidence supporting the physiopathological potential of neuroglia. Astrocytes, in particular, play a pivotal role in brain homeostasis as they actively participate in neuronal metabolism, synaptic plasticity and neuroprotection. Furthermore, they are intrinsic components of brain responses to toxic and traumatic insults through complex processes involving several molecular and functional alterations that may lead to disruption of brain homeostasis and connectivity. This review provides a brief overview of current knowledge of astrocyte functions in the brain, and focuses on some glial-specific pathways involved in astrocytic dysfunction that might be effective therapeutic targets for clinical management of neurodegenerative disorders.

Keywords: Brain homeostasis; Neuroprotection; Neurotrophins; Reactive astrogliosis; Systems biology.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Astrocytes / pathology
  • Astrocytes / transplantation
  • Brain / drug effects
  • Brain / pathology
  • Drug Discovery
  • Gliosis / pathology
  • Gliosis / therapy*
  • Glutamic Acid / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / drug therapy
  • Inflammation / pathology
  • Nerve Growth Factors / metabolism
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases / pathology
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases / therapy*
  • Neuroprotective Agents / pharmacology*
  • Neuroprotective Agents / therapeutic use
  • Signal Transduction
  • Synapses / physiology
  • Systems Biology

Substances

  • Nerve Growth Factors
  • Neuroprotective Agents
  • Glutamic Acid