Objective: Previous meta-analyses identified an inverse association of coffee consumption with the risk of type 2 diabetes. However, an updated meta-analysis is needed because new studies comparing the trends of association for caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee have since been published.
Research design and methods: PubMed and Embase were searched for cohort or nested case-control studies that assessed the relationship of coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes from 1966 to February 2013. A restricted cubic spline random-effects model was used.
Results: Twenty-eight prospective studies were included in the analysis, with 1,109,272 study participants and 45,335 cases of type 2 diabetes. The follow-up duration ranged from 10 months to 20 years. Compared with no or rare coffee consumption, the relative risk (RR; 95% CI) for diabetes was 0.92 (0.90-0.94), 0.85 (0.82-0.88), 0.79 (0.75-0.83), 0.75 (0.71-0.80), 0.71 (0.65-0.76), and 0.67 (0.61-0.74) for 1-6 cups/day, respectively. The RR of diabetes for a 1 cup/day increase was 0.91 (0.89-0.94) for caffeinated coffee consumption and 0.94 (0.91-0.98) for decaffeinated coffee consumption (P for difference = 0.17).
Conclusions: Coffee consumption was inversely associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes in a dose-response manner. Both caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee was associated with reduced diabetes risk.