Cell based metabolic barriers to glucose diffusion: macrophages and continuous glucose monitoring

Biomaterials. 2014 Mar;35(10):3145-53. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2014.01.001. Epub 2014 Jan 22.

Abstract

It is assumed that MQ are central to glucose sensor bio-fouling and therefore have a major negative impact on continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) performance in vivo. However to our knowledge there is no data in the literature to directly support or refute this assumption. Since glucose and oxygen (O2) are key to glucose sensor function in vivo, understanding and controlling glucose and O2 metabolic activity of MQ is likely key to successful glucose sensor performance. We hypothesized that the accumulation of MQ at the glucose sensor-tissue interface will act as "Cell Based Metabolic Barriers" (CBMB) to glucose diffusing from the interstitial tissue compartment to the implanted glucose sensor and as such creating an artificially low sensor output, thereby compromising sensor function and CGM. Our studies demonstrated that 1) direct injections of MQ at in vivo sensor implantation sites dramatically decreased sensor output (measured in nA), 2) addition of MQ to glucose sensors in vitro resulted in a rapid and dramatic fall in sensor output and 3) lymphocytes did not affect sensor function in vitro or in vivo. These data support our hypothesis that MQ can act as metabolic barriers to glucose and O2 diffusion in vivo and in vitro.

Keywords: Continuous glucose monitoring; Diabetes; Glucose metabolism; Implantable glucose sensor; Macrophages.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biosensing Techniques
  • Diffusion
  • Glucose / metabolism*
  • Macrophages / metabolism*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL

Substances

  • Glucose