Energetic aqueous rechargeable sodium-ion battery based on Na2 CuFe(CN)6 -NaTi2 (PO4 )3 intercalation chemistry

ChemSusChem. 2014 Feb;7(2):407-11. doi: 10.1002/cssc.201301036. Epub 2014 Jan 24.


Aqueous rechargeable sodium-ion batteries have the potential to meet growing demand for grid-scale electric energy storage because of the widespread availability and low cost of sodium resources. In this study, we synthesized a Na-rich copper hexacyanoferrate(II) Na2 CuFe(CN)6 as a high potential cathode and used NaTi2 (PO4 )3 as a Na-deficient anode to assemble an aqueous sodium ion battery. This battery works very well with a high average discharge voltage of 1.4 V, a specific energy of 48 Wh kg(-1) , and an excellent high-rate cycle stability with approximately 90 % capacity retention over 1000 cycles, achieving a new record in the electrochemical performance of aqueous Na-ion batteries. Moreover, all the anode, cathode, and electrolyte materials are low cost and naturally abundant and are affordable for widespread applications.

Keywords: aqueous electrolyte; electrochemistry; energy storage; intercalation chemistry; sodium-ion batteries.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Electric Power Supplies*
  • Electrodes
  • Ferrocyanides / chemistry*
  • Sodium / chemistry*
  • Titanium / chemistry*
  • Water / chemistry


  • Ferrocyanides
  • ferrocyn
  • Water
  • titanium phosphate
  • Sodium
  • Titanium