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, 18 (2), 415-22

Intradialytic Hypotension: Frequency, Sources of Variation and Correlation With Clinical Outcome

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Intradialytic Hypotension: Frequency, Sources of Variation and Correlation With Clinical Outcome

Jeffrey J Sands et al. Hemodial Int.

Abstract

Intradialytic hypotension (IH) is a frequent complication of hemodialysis (HD) and is associated with increased patient mortality and cardiovascular events. We studied IH to determine its variability, correlates, and clinical impact in 13 outpatient HD facilities. Blood pressure was captured by machine download. IH was defined as >30 mmHg decrease in systolic blood pressure to <90 mmHg. Risk factors were assessed by logistic regression and hospitalization by Poisson regression. Time to death and first hospitalization were assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis in patients completing >20 HD treatments. We studied IH in 44,801 treatments (Tx) in 1137 patients. IH was frequent (17.2% of treatments) and highly variable by patient (0-100% Tx) and dialysis facility (11.1-25.8% Tx). 25.1% of patients had no IH (0% Tx) and 16.2% had IH on >35% Tx. Increased IH frequency was associated with age, female gender, diabetes, Hispanic origin, longer end stage renal disease vintage, higher body mass index, higher ultrafiltration volume, the second and third weekly Tx, lower pre-HD systolic blood pressure, higher difference between prescribed and achieved post-HD weight, and higher dialysate temperature. Dialysis facility was an independent predictor of IH frequency. Patients with >35% IH treatments had poorer survival (P = 0.036), and more frequent and longer hospitalization (P = 0.04, P = 0.002, respectively) than patients without IH. In conclusion, IH frequency was highly variable, associated with individual facilities, patient and treatment characteristics, and correlated with mortality and hospitalization. Identifying practice patterns associated with IH coupled with routine reporting of IH will facilitate medical management and may result in the prevention of IH, decreased mortality, and decreased hospitalization.

Keywords: Blood pressure; hemodialysis; hypotension; intradialytic hypotension.

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