Manganese in health and disease

Met Ions Life Sci. 2013;13:199-227. doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-7500-8_7.


Manganese is an important metal for human health, being absolutely necessary for development, metabolism, and the antioxidant system. Nevertheless, excessive exposure or intake may lead to a condition known as manganism, a neurodegenerative disorder that causes dopaminergic neuronal death and parkinsonian-like symptoms. Hence, Mn has a paradoxal effect in animals, a Janus-faced metal. Extensive work has been carried out to understand Mn-induced neurotoxicity and to find an effective treatment. This review focuses on the requirement for Mn in human health as well as the diseases associated with excessive exposure to this metal.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / metabolism*
  • Cell Death
  • Dopaminergic Neurons* / metabolism
  • Dopaminergic Neurons* / pathology
  • Humans
  • Manganese / metabolism*
  • Manganese Poisoning* / metabolism
  • Manganese Poisoning* / pathology
  • Parkinsonian Disorders* / metabolism
  • Parkinsonian Disorders* / pathology


  • Antioxidants
  • Manganese