The eubacterial RNA polymerase core, a transcription machinery performing DNA-dependent RNA polymerization, consists of two α subunits and β, β' and ω subunits. An additional σ subunit is recruited for promoter recognition and transcription initiation. Cyanobacteria, a group of eubacteria characterized by oxygenic photosynthesis, have a unique composition of the RNA polymerase (RNAP) core due to splitting of the β' subunit to N-terminal γ and C-terminal β' subunits. The physiological roles of the small ω subunit of RNAP, encoded by the rpoZ gene, are not yet completely understood in any bacteria. We found that although ω is non-essential in cyanobacteria, it has a major impact on the overall gene expression pattern. In ΔrpoZ strain, recruitment of the primary σ factor into the RNAP holoenzyme is inefficient, which causes downregulation of highly expressed genes and upregulation of many low-expression genes. Especially, genes encoding proteins of photosynthetic carbon concentrating and carbon fixing complexes were down, and the ΔrpoZ mutant showed low light-saturated photosynthetic activity and accumulated photoprotective carotenoids and α-tocopherol. The results indicate that the ω subunit facilitates the association of the primary σ factor with the RNAP core, thereby allowing efficient transcription of highly expressed genes.