New generation lipid emulsions prevent PNALD in chronic parenterally fed preterm pigs

J Lipid Res. 2014 Mar;55(3):466-77. doi: 10.1194/jlr.M044545. Epub 2014 Jan 29.


Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is associated with the development of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) in infants. Fish oil-based lipid emulsions can reverse PNALD, yet it is unknown if they can prevent PNALD. We studied preterm pigs administered TPN for 14 days with either 100% soybean oil (IL), 100% fish oil (OV), or a mixture of soybean oil, medium chain triglycerides (MCTs), olive oil, and fish oil (SL); a group was fed formula enterally (ENT). In TPN-fed pigs, serum direct bilirubin, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and plasma bile acids increased after the 14 day treatment but were highest in IL pigs. All TPN pigs had suppressed hepatic expression of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), cholesterol 7-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), and plasma 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) concentrations, yet hepatic CYP7A1 protein abundance was increased only in the IL versus ENT group. Organic solute transporter alpha (OSTα) gene expression was the highest in the IL group and paralleled plasma bile acid levels. In cultured hepatocytes, bile acid-induced bile salt export pump (BSEP) expression was inhibited by phytosterol treatment. We show that TPN-fed pigs given soybean oil developed cholestasis and steatosis that was prevented with both OV and SL emulsions. Due to the presence of phytosterols in the SL emulsion, the differences in cholestasis and liver injury among lipid emulsion groups in vivo were weakly correlated with plasma and hepatic phytosterol content.

Keywords: FGF19; cholestasis; fish oil; parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease; soybean oil.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Animals, Newborn
  • Blotting, Western
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Cholestenones / blood
  • Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase / genetics
  • Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase / metabolism
  • Fat Emulsions, Intravenous / administration & dosage*
  • Female
  • Fish Oils / administration & dosage
  • Gene Expression / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Lipids / administration & dosage
  • Lipids / chemistry
  • Liver Diseases / etiology
  • Liver Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Olive Oil
  • Parenteral Nutrition / adverse effects
  • Parenteral Nutrition / methods*
  • Plant Oils / administration & dosage
  • Pregnancy
  • Premature Birth / veterinary
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Soybean Oil / administration & dosage
  • Swine
  • Swine Diseases / etiology
  • Swine Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Triglycerides / administration & dosage
  • gamma-Glutamyltransferase / blood


  • Cholestenones
  • Fat Emulsions, Intravenous
  • Fish Oils
  • Lipids
  • Olive Oil
  • Plant Oils
  • Triglycerides
  • 7 alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one
  • Soybean Oil
  • Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase
  • gamma-Glutamyltransferase