A cross-sectional survey assessing sources of movement-related fear among people with fibromyalgia syndrome

Clin Rheumatol. 2015 Jun;34(6):1109-19. doi: 10.1007/s10067-014-2494-5. Epub 2014 Jan 31.


Fear of movement may contribute to functional limitations and loss of well-being among individuals with fibromyalgia (FM). The objectives of this study were to assess factors contributing to movement-related fear and to explore relationships among these factors, function and wellness, in a widespread population of people with FM. This was an internet survey of individuals with FM. Respondents completed a battery of surveys including the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire--Revised (FIQR), Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK), Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC), Primary Care Posttraumatic Stress Disorder screen (PC-PTSD), Vertigo Symptom Scale (VSS-SF), a joint hypermobility syndrome screen (JHS), and screening questions related to obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD), physical activity, work status, and demographics. Analysis included descriptive statistics, Pearson product-moment correlations, and linear regression. Over a 2-year period, 1,125 people (97.6 % female) completed the survey battery. Kinesiophobia was present in 72.9 % of the respondents, balance confidence was compromised in 74.8 %, PTSD likely in 60.4 %, joint hypermobility syndrome likely in 46.6 %, and OCPD tendencies in 26.8 %. The total FIQR and FIQR perceived function subscores were highly correlated (p < 0.0005, r > 0.4) with pain, kinesiophobia, balance confidence, and vertigo. Reported activity level had poor correlation (r < 0.25) with all measured variables. Pain, ABC, VSS, and TSK predicted FIQR and FIQR-pf, explaining 65 and 48 % of the variance, respectively. Kinesiophobia, balance complaints, vertigo, PTSD, and joint hypermobility were common in this population of people with FM. Sources of movement-related fear correlated to overall wellness and perceived function as measured by the FIQR and FIQR-pf.

MeSH terms

  • Activities of Daily Living
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Compulsive Personality Disorder / epidemiology
  • Compulsive Personality Disorder / psychology*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Fear / psychology*
  • Female
  • Fibromyalgia / epidemiology
  • Fibromyalgia / physiopathology
  • Fibromyalgia / psychology*
  • Humans
  • Joint Instability / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Movement*
  • Phobic Disorders / epidemiology
  • Phobic Disorders / psychology*
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic / epidemiology
  • Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic / psychology*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Young Adult