Plasma tumor necrosis factor-α and C-reactive protein as biomarker for survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2014 Mar;140(3):515-9. doi: 10.1007/s00432-014-1592-8. Epub 2014 Jan 31.


Purpose: Tumor TNM staging is the main basis for prognosis and treatment decision for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) despite significant heterogeneity in terms of outcome among patients with the same clinical stage. In this study, a possible role of plasma interleukin-2 (IL-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and C-reactive protein (CRP) as biomarkers for survival of HNSCC patients was investigated.

Methods: In this prospective study, plasma levels of IL-2, IL-6, GM-CSF, TNF-α and CRP in patients (n = 100) and controls (n = 48) were analyzed.

Results: Significantly elevated levels of CRP and TNF-α (p < 0.001) were found in the patients. Combination of upregulated CRP and TNF-α in the patient plasma was significantly related to shorter patient survival, independent of clinical stage.

Conclusions: Our findings indicate that CRP and TNF-α might be suitable as biomarkers in combination with tumor TNM staging for predicting survival and individualized treatment of HNSCC patients. Plasma CRP and TNF-α analysis are simple, rapid, cost effective and suitable for clinical practice.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / blood*
  • C-Reactive Protein / metabolism*
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / blood*
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality*
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology
  • Female
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / blood
  • Head and Neck Neoplasms / blood*
  • Head and Neck Neoplasms / mortality*
  • Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-2 / blood
  • Interleukin-6 / blood
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Survival Analysis
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / blood*


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Interleukin-2
  • Interleukin-6
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
  • C-Reactive Protein