In order to validate the antiviral effect against hepatitis B virus (HBV) of Taraxacum mongolicum (T. mongolicum), the protective effect on hepatocytes, and antiviral properties against duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) and HBV of T. mongolicum extract (TME) were evaluated in chemically-injured neonatal rat hepatocytes, DHBV-infected duck fetal hepatocytes and HBV-transfected HepG2.2.15 cells, respectively. The results demonstrated that TME at 50-100 µg/ml improved D-galactosamine (D-GalN), thioacetamide (TAA) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-injured rat hepatocytes, and produced protection rates of 42.2, 34.6 and 43.8% at 100 µg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, TME at 1-100 µg/ml markedly inhibited DHBV DNA replication. Additionally, TME at 25-100 µg/ml reduced HBsAg and HBeAg levels and produced inhibition rates of 91.39 and 91.72% at 100 µg/ml, respectively. TME markedly inhibited HBV DNA replication at 25-100 µg/ml. The results demonstrate the potent antiviral effect of T. mongolicum against HBV effect. The protective of TME effect on hepatocytes may be achieved by its ability to ameliorate oxidative stress. The antiviral properties of TME may contribute to blocking protein synthesis steps and DNA replication. Furthermore, major components of TME were quantificationally analyzed. These data provide scientific evidence supporting the traditional use of TME in the treatment of hepatitis.