Background: Most evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of the antithrombotic regimens for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with stent (PCI-S) derives from small, single-center, retrospective datasets. To obtain further data on this issue, we carried out the prospective, multicenter, observational Management of patients with Atrial Fibrillation undergoing Coronary Artery Stenting (AFCAS) registry (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00596570).
Hypothesis: We hypothesize that the antithrombotic treatment of AF patients undergoing PCI-S is variable and the clinical outcome may vary according to the different regimens.
Methods: Consecutive AF patients undergoing PCI-S at 17 European institutions were included and followed for 1 year. Outcome measures included: (1) major adverse cardiac/cerebrovascular events (MACCE), including all-cause death, myocardial infarction, repeat revascularization, stent thrombosis, or stroke/transient ischemic attack, and (2) bleeding, and were compared according to the antithrombotic regimen adopted. A propensity-score analysis was carried out to adjust for baseline and procedural differences.
Results: Out of the 975 patients enrolled, 914 were included in the final analysis. The mean CHADS2 score was 2.2 ± 1.2, and 71% of patients had a CHADS2 score ≥2. Triple therapy (TT) of vitamin K antagonist (VKA), aspirin, and clopidogrel was prescribed to 74% of patients, dual antiplatelet therapy to 18%, and VKA plus clopidogrel to 8%. At 1-year follow-up, no significant differences were found in the occurrence of MACCE and bleeding among the 3 antithrombotic regimens, even when adjusted for propensity score.
Conclusions: In this large, real-world population of AF patients undergoing PCI-S, TT was the antithrombotic regimen most frequently prescribed. Although several limitations need to be acknowledged, in our study the 1-year efficacy and safety of TT, dual antiplatelet therapy, and VKA plus clopidogrel was comparable.
© 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.