A study was designed to test chondroitin sulphate and other high-molecular-weight solutions, using the rabbit uterus as the surgical model, in the prevention of postoperative adhesions. Eighty-five mature white female New Zealand rabbits underwent surgical injury of each uterine horn, with surgical repair of the left horn only in all animals using 9-0 nylon. The rabbits were randomly divided into five groups: groups A, B and C received 25 mL of chondroitin sulphate, sodium carboxymethylcellulose or 32% dextran 70, respectively. The remaining two groups received either 50 mL of normal saline (D) or no solution (E). Postoperatively the animals were killed, and the adhesions were carefully scored. The results clearly demonstrated the superiority of chondroitin sulphate as an intraperitoneal treatment for the prevention of postoperative adhesions (P less than .001 vs. carboxymethyl cellulose, dextran, saline and control).