Deployment risk and resilience inventory-2 (DRRI-2): an updated tool for assessing psychosocial risk and resilience factors among service members and veterans

J Trauma Stress. 2013 Dec;26(6):710-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21868.


The Deployment Risk and Resilience Inventory (DRRI) is a widely used instrument for assessing deployment-related risk and resilience factors among war veterans. A revision of this instrument was recently undertaken to enhance the DRRI’s applicability across a variety of deployment-related circumstances and military subgroups. The resulting suite of 17 distinct DRRI-2 scales is the product of a multiyear psychometric endeavor that involved (a) focus groups with Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans to inform an assessment of the content validity of original DRRI measures, (b) examination of item and scale characteristics of revised scales in a national sample of 469 OEF/OIF veterans, and (c) administration of refined scales to a second national sample of 1,046 OEF/OIF veterans to confirm their psychometric quality. Both classical test theory and item response theory analytical strategies were applied to inform major revisions, which included updating the coverage of warfare-related stressors, expanding the assessment of family factors throughout the deployment cycle, and shortening scales. Finalized DRRI-2 scales demonstrated strong internal consistency reliability and criterion-related validity. The DRRI-2 can be applied to examine the role that psychosocial factors play in post deployment health and inform interventions aimed at reducing risk and enhancing resilience among war veterans.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Afghan Campaign 2001-
  • Family / psychology
  • Humans
  • Iraq War, 2003-2011
  • Military Personnel / psychology*
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales*
  • Psychometrics
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Resilience, Psychological*
  • Risk Factors
  • Sexual Harassment / psychology
  • Social Determinants of Health
  • Social Support
  • Stress, Psychological / psychology*
  • Veterans / psychology*
  • Warfare