Sleep problems are common in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to the extent that they mimic or exacerbate daytime symptoms expression. In this review, we advocate the need for a better understanding of sleep alterations in youths with ADHD and their impact on neurobehavioral functions including learning, memory and emotional regulation. An in-depth exploration of existing data showed that although extensively studied, the actual nature of sleep problems in ADHD and their effects on daytime behavior are still less well understood. Important issues, among which developmental changes in sleep architecture and role of subtle sleep electroencephalogram signatures, are generally neglected. Future research of sleep effects on behavior in ADHD would benefit from considering developmental aspects and links between brain activation patterns during sleep and wake.