Plant growth and development are influenced by the genetic composition of the plant (G), the environment (E), and the interaction between them (G×E). To produce suitable genotypes for multiple environments, G×E should be accounted for and assessed in plant-breeding programs. Here, we review the genetic basis of G×E and its consequence for quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping in biparental and genome-wide association (GWA) mapping populations. We also consider the implications of G×E for understanding plant fitness trade-offs and evolutionary ecology.
Keywords: QTL × environment interaction; antagonistic pleiotropy; genotype × environment interaction; phenotypic plasticity.
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