Influence of polyphenol extract from evening primrose (Oenothera paradoxa) seeds on human prostate and breast cancer cell lines

Postepy Hig Med Dosw (Online). 2014 Feb 3;68:110-8. doi: 10.5604/17322693.1088036.


There is growing interest in plant polyphenols which exhibit pleiotropic biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer effects. The objective of our study was to evaluate the influence of an evening primrose extract (EPE) from defatted seeds on viability and invasiveness of three human cell lines: PNT1A (normal prostate cells), DU145 (prostate cancer cells) and MDA-MB-231 (breast cancer cells). The results revealed that after 72 h of incubation the tested extract reduced the viability of DU 145 and MDA-MB-231 with IC50 equal to 14.5 μg/mL for both cell lines. In contrast, EPE did not inhibit the viability of normal prostate cells. Furthermore, EPE reduced PNT1A and MDA-MB-231 cell invasiveness; at the concentration of 21.75 μg/mL the suppression of invasion reached 92% and 47%, respectively (versus control). Additionally, zymographic analysis revealed that after 48 h of incubation EPE inhibited metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activities in a dose-dependent manner. For PNT1A the activities of MMP-2 and MMP-9 decreased 4- and 2-fold, respectively, at EPE concentration of 29 μg/mL. In the case of MDA-MB-231 and DU 145 the decrease in MMP-9 activity at EPE concentration of 29 μg/mL was 5.5-fold and almost 1.9-fold, respectively. In conclusion, this study suggests that EPE may exhibit antimigratory, anti-invasive and antimetastatic potential towards prostate and breast cancer cell lines.

MeSH terms

  • Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Oenothera biennis*
  • Phytotherapy*
  • Plant Extracts / therapeutic use*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • Seeds*
  • Tumor Cells, Cultured


  • Plant Extracts