Renal failure is common in patients with severe heart failure. This complex pathophysiological interaction has been classified as cardio-renal syndrome. In these patients hydropic decompensation is the main cause of hospitalization. In patients with refractory heart failure, characterized by diuretic resistance and congestion due to volume overload, ultrafiltration has to be considered. In acute decompensated heart failure with worsening of renal function, extracorporeal ultrafiltration is the preferred treatment modality. On the other hand, patients suffering from chronic decompensated heart failure, particularly patients with ascites, will profit from the treatment specific advantages of peritoneal ultrafiltration. Prerequisite for an optimized care of patients with cardio-renal syndrome is the close collaboration among intensive care doctors, cardiologists and nephrologists.
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