The activity of the alcoholic extract of the rhizomes of Alpinia galanga was studied for the treatment of diabetes-induced nephropathy in rats. Wistar rats received a single intraperitoneal streptozotocin injection (60 mg kg(-1) b.wt.) to induce diabetes. Rats were considered diabetic if blood glucose concentration increased up to 200 or more mg dL(-1). The rats were orally administered alcoholic extract of Alpinia galanga (50, 100 and 200 mg kg(-1)), once daily for 40 days. Body weight, blood glucose, urinary albumin, glycosylated haemoglobin, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, lipids profile, Malondialdehyde (MDA), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), Glutathione (GSH) and Catalase (CAT) were then evaluated. After 40 days of treatment, Alpinia galanga significantly (p<0.05) decreased glycaemia, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), urinar albumin and increased body weight in diabetes-nephropathic rats. The extract (200 mg kg(-1)) decreased MDA significantly (p<0.01); GSH (p<0.05), increased SOD (p<0.05) and CAT (p<0.05) in the rats, compared with nephropathic control. The extract (100 and 200 mg kg(-1), respectively) lowered (p<0.05) total cholesterolemia, blood triglycerides (p<0.05), blood LDL cholesterol (p<0.05), but increased blood HDL cholesterol (p<0.01). Overall, atherogenic index was decreased significantly (p<0.05). In the present study, the rhizomes of Alpinia galanga demonstrated significant nephro-protective activities in the tested models. The alcoholic extract of the rhizomes of Alpinia galanga holds promise for the development of a standardized phytomedicine for diabetes mellitus and kidney disease treatment.