In this study the authors have developed a model with which can be studied directly the influence of circulating anti-myelin antibody on the clinical and pathologic course of inflammatory T-cell-mediated experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the rat. EAE was induced by passive transfer of either myelin basic protein (MBP)-activated spleen cells derived from sensitized donors or long-term-cultured MBP-specific T-cell lines. At the onset of the disease, monoclonal antibodies against a myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) were injected intravenously. This antigen is exposed on the surface of central nervous system myelin and oligodendrocytes. Intravenous injection of the antibody in the course of T-cell-mediated transfer EAE augmented the severity and duration of clinical signs and resulted in the formation of large, confluent demyelinated plaques.