Objective: The rationale for blocking interleukin-6 (IL-6) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) lies chiefly in the proinflammatory effect of this cytokine. Few studies have evaluated the consequences of anti-IL-6 receptor (IL-6R) antibody treatment on Treg cells. This study was undertaken to elucidate the mechanism of action of anti-IL-6R antibody treatment by studying the effects on Treg cells in an experimental arthritis model and in patients with RA.
Methods: Mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) were treated with a mouse anti-IL-6R antibody (MR16-1), and changes in Treg, Th1, and Th17 cells were assessed at key time points during the course of the disease. Peripheral blood from 15 RA patients was collected on day 0 and after 3 months of tocilizumab treatment for flow cytometry analysis of Th17 and Treg cells.
Results: In MR16-1-treated mice, Th17 cell frequencies were unchanged, whereas Treg cell frequencies were increased. The Treg cell phenotype showed marked changes, with an increase in the frequency of CD39+ Treg cells in the lymph nodes and spleen. Interestingly, similar CD39+ Treg cell expansion was observed in RA patients who were tocilizumab responders at 3 months, with no change in Th17 cell frequency. Moreover, fluorescence-activated cell-sorted CD39+ Treg cells from responder RA patients were functionally able to suppress the proliferation of conventional T cells.
Conclusion: In both CIA and RA, the frequency of functionally suppressive CD39+ Treg cells is increased as a result of anti-IL-6R treatment, whereas Th17 cells are unaffected. The modification of Treg cell frequency and phenotype may be one of the mechanisms involved in the therapeutic effect of IL-6 blockade in RA.
Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.