Tobacco smoking and environmental risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Clin Chest Med. 2014 Mar;35(1):17-27. doi: 10.1016/j.ccm.2013.09.011. Epub 2013 Dec 12.


The development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is multifactorial, and the risk factors include both genetic and environmental factors. Although tobacco smoking is an established risk factor for COPD, many other associated factors remain underappreciated or neglected. Upto 50% of cases of COPD can be attributed to nonsmoking risk factors. This article describes the role of tobacco smoking and the various environmental risk factors associated with the development of COPD.

Keywords: Biomass smoke; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Environmental; Risk factors; Tobacco smoking.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Agriculture
  • Air Pollution, Indoor / adverse effects*
  • Humans
  • Occupational Exposure / adverse effects*
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / etiology*
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoke / adverse effects
  • Smoking / adverse effects*
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution / adverse effects


  • Smoke
  • Tobacco Smoke Pollution