Distinction between mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease by CSF amyloid β40 and β42, and protein-conjugated acrolein

Clin Chim Acta. 2014 Mar 20;430:150-5. doi: 10.1016/j.cca.2014.01.007. Epub 2014 Feb 6.


Background: We found previously that the amyloid β40/42 (Aβ40/42) ratio and the level of protein-conjugated acrolein (PC-Acro) in plasma were increased in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects. We determined whether MCI and AD subjects can be differentiated based on the levels of Aβ40, Aβ42, and PC-Acro in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

Methods: Aβ40, Aβ42, PC-Acro, Tau and phosphorylated Tau in CSF were measured by ELISA.

Results: Median values of Aβ40, Aβ40/PC-Acro and Aβ40/42 in CSF were significantly lower in 54 AD subjects than those in 40 MCI subjects. Severity of VOI (volume of interest) atrophy was most intensely correlated with the decrease in Aβ40/PC-Acro and then that in Aβ40 and Aβ42/PC-Acro. MMSE was most intensely correlated with the decrease in Aβ42 and Aβ40, and then that in Aβ42/PC-Acro and Aβ40/PC-Acro.

Conclusion: A decrease in Aβ40/PC-Acro in CSF is well correlated with brain damage, and a decrease in Aβ42 and Aβ40 is well correlated with cognitive ability. Measurement of PC-Acro together with Aβ40 and Aβ42 provides a more precise evaluation of severity of AD subjects.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; CSF Amyloid-β; MCI; MMSE; Magnetic resonance imaging; Protein-conjugated acrolein.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acrolein / cerebrospinal fluid*
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Alzheimer Disease / cerebrospinal fluid*
  • Alzheimer Disease / diagnosis
  • Amyloid beta-Peptides / cerebrospinal fluid*
  • Cognitive Dysfunction / cerebrospinal fluid*
  • Cognitive Dysfunction / diagnosis
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Peptide Fragments / cerebrospinal fluid*


  • Amyloid beta-Peptides
  • Peptide Fragments
  • amyloid beta-protein (1-40)
  • amyloid beta-protein (1-42)
  • Acrolein